Note that whenever a movement occurs, there is a trace left behind. If not, explain why. Now all that is left is to show the movement. Test the following bracketed parts of sentences for whether they are constituents. Some examples are: Jen likes the cat who has a spot on her nose. Also, since there is a “wh-word”, we know that there has to be movement. So we would assume that the deep structure starts out like in (1a) below: Note the close similarity between (1a) and (1b). wh-movement) and I to C movement (i.e Inversion). I wonder how [everything will ] turn out. Step 1: Imagine the Answer (i.e. The same principle applies. Practice Test Question #1: To be complete, ... Support us and begin preparing Ad-free for your tests with Union Test Prep. I am a [Star Trek nerd]. While this page has primarily been focusing on the movement within questions, there are other places where we assume that movement has occurred. Sentences are not simply linear strings of words but are phrases, which are linked together in hierarchical structures. . Syntax Practice Exercises, part 3 Linguistics 201 Draw tree diagrams for the following sentences. 1. These three sentences show when movement in the relative clause has occurred, with the original element having moved from the subject, direct object, and indirect object position. If not, explain why. So what about the other questions described above? 5) a. If you have any questions, please email your TA or Adam King ([email protected]). For example, below is a list of example questions and full sentence responses: As you can see from the above examples, multiple questions can be made from the same assumed Deep Structure, all that is changing is what movement is occurring on its way to the Surface Structure. What type of a phrase is it? In the instance of Who laughs, we have a case of wh-movement, although there isn’t an obvious change in word order. How would the Determiner(s) in this sentence attach to the NPs ? When you first encounter a question, first think about what the complete answer would be (in a “Who stole the cookies from the cookie jar” game way). Consider the following sentences and answer the questions that follow each: University Operator: (919) 962-2211 | © 2020 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Office of Arts and Sciences Information Services, [Captain Picard is] [the best captain ever]. Sally was painting a house by the sea. Learn more about Quia: Create your own activities How does it attach to the main IP? Who should Picard punch in the face? The jury believed that the defendant was guilty. (Give a judgment for each.). [Captain Picard is] [the best captain ever]. Though [Captain Janeway] is [fantastic, too]. What is the predicate (main verb) of the sentence? But as we can see, once we have understood the basics of movement within questions, it is easy to make the leap to understanding movement within relative clauses. The deep structure is assumed to have the same structure as the corresponding answers would have, except that there should be a +Q feature occuring in the C of the Questions, and different constituents will be headed by question words. ), What is the deep structure order of this sentence? Now apply the movement test to the following items to determine constituency. This quiz is not only for BSED majoring in English but also to everyone, especially YOU!. In syntax, we assume that every question starts out the same way that a sentence does in the Deep Structure (except for a feature on C), but that movement occurs when it transitions to Surface Structure. We can tell where the question words originate, once again, by thinking about the original small sentence statements: Once again, then, we assume that the underlying structure has the question word originating in the position that the NP originated in the smaller CP structure. As we can see from above, we would expect the answer to have been something like Alice laughs. Essentially, the relative clause is a tiny CP, which acts like a miniature question. transformations) must happen to give us this question’s surface structure? Welcome to a brief test on Linguistics. What is the subject of the sentence? 3. Note that you can answer the question (or similar question) posed in each of these relative clauses with the NP that those relative clauses are modifying: Because they are similar to miniature questions, we expect them to similarly show movement. This hints to us that (1a) will show movement in it’s surface structure, while the constituents in (1b) will remain in their original positions. the original structure). ... Albert.io offers the best practice questions for high-stakes exams and core courses spanning grades 6-12. (Give a judgment for each.) Step 1: Imagine the Answer (i.e. Very thorny questions arise, and half the fun of syntax is trying to think of a clever analysis that can accommodate all of the facts. It is a beautiful day [in the neighborhood]. The process for thinking about the movement in these clauses are very similar to that of questions. Syntax • Any speaker of any human language can produce and understand an inﬁnite number of possible sentences • Thus, we can’t possibly have a mental dictionary of all the possible sentences • Rather, we have the rules for forming sentences stored in our brains – Syntax is the part of grammar that pertains to a For the questions about the sentence Kevin likes Jen, we once again have two instances of wh-movement, although in these cases, the NP that is moving is occuring in two different locations: In (3a), we see that the movement that has occurred from the subject NP to the spec CP position is the same as in (2). So let’s begin with a simple question like Who laughs? I know the object which Miss Scarlet killed Professor Plum with. The main difference is that movement is motivated by a +Relative feature, rather than a +Q feature. Syntax is the study of phrase and sentence structure. . What is in the head of the IP (i.e. Where do the moving elements move to, structurally. I wonder [what would Yoda think of the movement test]. It contains different questions about the study of language, phonemes, and the theory of language. 4) a. This is because, as noted, movement occurs in who laughs so that the +Q feature of C is satisfied. On that transition to the surface structure, because each of these sentences has a +Q feature in the head of the overall CP, movement must occur to satisfy it, hence the different questions. what is the I of this sentence)? What type of phrase is it? [I don’t] really [like the original Star Trek, though]. Though [Captain Janeway] is [fantastic, too]. Who should punch Riker in the face? How does it attach to the main IP? The two major parties are Democrats and [Republicans]. James can play the piano and the accordion. It is often most useful to add a subscript to denote which traces coordinate with which moved elements. In (3b), we actually see two types of movement to form the question Who does Kevin like: we have wh-movement, moving the direct object NP who to the spec CP position, as well as do-insertion and subsequent inversion so that does appears in the C position. Test the following bracketed parts of sentences for whether they are constituents. relative clause CPs). In this case, the following movement occurs from the deep structure shown in (1a): In (2), the entire NP has moved to the spec CP position, leaving behind a trace. Usually this is the point where people start inventing things like AgrOP and so forth, based on examples that a simpler theory doesn't seem able to capture. I know the girl who Sam met at the party. 5 Syntax Practice Questions Here are some example answers for questions at the end of chapter 5. This is because while in the Deep Structure, they are very similar, the NP appears in different positions in the surface structure of the two.
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