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application of biotechnology


USA itself has established more than 200 companies such as Biogen, Cetus, Hybritech, etc. These grains (kernels) will be used for the extraction of brazzein, which can give a serious jolt to the countries exporting large quantities of sugar. Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are already in cultivation in advanced countries, such as U.S.A. and many European countries. There are numerous varieties of rice in India alone. They may rapidly multiply and outcompete the native microbes. However, transgene symbol which has small letters is written in italics (cry), whereas the first letter of protein symbol is capital and written in Roman (Cry). These wastes help to counter the pollutions caused in the environment. PPPM provides a robust platform for predictive diagnostics, targeted preventive measures and treatments tailored to the individual. The fruits of this transgenic variety have a superior taste and increased total soluble solids. SCID is caused due to defect in the gene for the enzyme adenosine deaminase. Bio-patents are awarded for (i) strains of microorganisms, (ii) cell lines, (iii) genetically modified strains of plants and animals, (iv) DNA sequences, (v) the proteins encoded by DNA sequences, (vi) various biotechnological procedures, (vii) production processes, (viii) prod­ucts and (ix) product applications. Do eukaryotic cells have restriction endonucleases? The molecular probes are usually single stranded pieces of DNAs (sometimes RNAs) labelled with radio isotopes such as 32p.
Now-a-days, biotechnology, particularly recombinant DNA technology, is used for exploitation of the biological world by various ways.

India is a country rich in tradition, communal knowledge and expertise in natural medi­cines, spices, food preparations, biological pesticides and diverse agriculture. These are insulin, growth hormone, interferon’s, vaccines, erythroprotein and blood clotting factors. Nestle India has lined up a processing patent on cooked cereals, vegetable pulao and parboiled rice, at the Indian Patent Office, even though Indians have been making parboiled rice, often as a staple diet for centuries. A bioweapon is a device that carries and delivers to the target …

The technique of producing monoclonal antibodies by Fusing normal antibody-producing cells with cells from cancerous tumors was introduced by Georges Kohler and Cesar Milstein in 1970. Murray and Peterson (1950) observed that the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer could bring about hydroxylation of steroids.

Bacillus thuringiensis, was the first bio-pesticide to be used on a commercial scale. are very important for the effective treatment of the disease. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. It is proposed to transfer the brazzein gene into maize and express it in maize Kernels. Through patenting without consent, foreign companies have collared at least 22 plants for their beneficial derivatives. The plants, in which a functional foreign gene has been incorporated by any biotechnological methods that generally not present in plant, are called transgenic plants. The infective conidia, spores, etc., of the antagonistic fungi reach the haemocoel of the insect either through integument or mouth. These bacteria will become resistant to the concerned antibiotic and become unmanageable. Here this is noteworthy that the symbols for a gene (cry) and for its protein (Cry) product are the same. (iii) Useful genes are isolated from the bioresources and patented, and thereafter, used to generate useful commercial products.

The use of spirulina (SCP) should help bridge the gap between the requirement and the supply of proteins in the human diet.
12.11. Instead, Portsmouth University is reported to be in the process of selling the rights on “their” Thai fungi to a drug company for screening, as the fungi are believed to contain compounds for treating everything from AIDS to cancer- worth millions of pounds.

For example, a patent granted in U.S.A. covers the entire ‘basmati’ rice germplasm indigenous to our country. Stage 1: Upstream processing – this stage involves preparation of liquid medium, separation of particulate and inhibitory chemicals from the medium, sterilization, air purification etc. The commercial preparations of B. thuringiensis contain a mixture of spores.

Deficiency of somatotropin in about 3% cases is hereditary. Vaccines are either attenuated (live but weak) or dead (inert) agents of disease which when administered into a healthy person provide temporary or permanent immunity to that particular disease. Content Guidelines 2. Similarly, genetically modified plants could pose biological and ecological risk.

Antibodies derived from a single clone of cells which recognize only one kind of antigen, are called mono­clonal antibodies. Some of the biopharmaceutical products are produced commercially through fermentation routes are – Human insulin, Streptokinase, Erythropoietin, Hepatitis B Vaccine, Human growth hormone, Interleukin, GCSF, GM-CSF, Alfa-Interferon, Gamma Interferon etc. The entire process can be divided into three stages. However, the day is not far off when these diseases can be cured through gene therapy. This kind of interferon is produced when leucocytes and lymphocytes are exposed to virus. Monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for specific antigens and can be easily cultured outside the body. US Bio-weapons Program can be mentioned as follows (i) In 1942 approximately 5000 bombs filled with B. anthracis produced, (ii) In 1950s program expanded during Korean War. The biological weapons are generally used against humans, and their crops and animals. Phosphate is made soluble by some bacteria and by some fungi that form association with roots of higher plants. Bioremediation – this is the cleaning up hazardous substances into non-toxic compounds is called the Bioremediation process. Biopatents are awarded for the following: (iii) Genetically modified strains of plants and animals, (v) The proteins enclosed by DNA sequences.

This is done by amplifying the DNA of extinct animals.

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