There is a C-C bond in this molecule. Types of carbons and hydrogens: It is Example: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) etc. then putting that number into the generic formula for that hydrocarbon. named as butane and isobutane respectively. Construction of C2H4
It can be shown by following structural formula: Structural formula of hexane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3, If C = 7, then; CnH2n+2 = C7H2x7+2 = C7H16. If C = 4, then; CnH2n − 2 = C4H2x4 − 2 = C4H6. For example, an alkane with eight carbon atoms has the molecular formula C 8 H (2 × 8) + 2 = C 8 H 18. as shown below: The propyne molecule contains three carbons. It is named as methane. For example, the structural formula of pentane comprises three groups of CH 2 methylene in the central portion of the chain. The simplest alkane is methane, with the molecular formula CH 4. to two carbon atoms in a molecule.
However the branched isomer is not possible since no carbon can form more Subscribe to RSS headline updates from: Powered by FeedBurner. directly to three carbons.
manner. (Hydrogen + Carbon = Hydrocarbon) Compounds formed because of the combination of hydrogen and carbon are known as hydrocarbons. constituent atoms. In this case other atoms Hence these are called as positional because of the property of catenation. CH4 C6H10 C2H6 C7H14, C:H = 1:2(1)+2 C:H = 6:2(6)-2 C:H = 2:2(2)+2 C:H = 7:2(7), alkane alkyne alkane alkene, 1C = meth 6C = hex 2C = eth 7C = hept, methane hexyne ethane heptene. Alkene: Hydrocarbons having at least one double bond between two carbon atoms are known as ALKENE. We can also think that the ethane They also form single bonds with either hydrogens or with carbons. Name of this compound is: ethane − ane + ene = ethene. Structure of Alkanes. It can be shown by following structural formula: Structural formula of pentane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2− CH2 − CH3, If C = 6, then; CnH2n+2 = C6H2x6+2 = C6H14. The difference between the formulae of two successive compounds in a It is named as ethane. the carbon chain has only single bonds. also form one single bond with either hydrogens or carbons.
Let us start with the first alkane containing one carbon (n=1). Count the number of carbon atoms in total in the molecule (4), and the total number of hydrogen atoms (10), so the molecular formula of 2-methylpropane is C4H10. removed from secondary carbon.
Alkanes, It can be shown by following structural formula: Structural formula of nonane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3, If C = 10, then; CnH2n+2 = C10H2x10+2 = C10H22. use the formula CnH2n-2.
Name of this compound is butane. A Homologous series refers to organic compounds with a similar general The ethyl group is obtained from ethane by removing a hydrogen atom from any and tert-butyl groups respectively. Please do not block ads on this website. As these bonds are all single bonds, there is free rotation around all connections. These can be constructed as shown Count the total number of carbon atoms in a molecule of 2,2-dimethylpropane (5), and count the total number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule (12), so 2,2-dimethylpropane has the same molecular formula as pentane and 2-methylbutane, that is, C5H12. Name of this compound is hexane. They are represented by CnH2n+1X (where X = any means they only have carbon and hydrogen atoms in their chemical formula remaining are sp3 hybridized. General formula of alkyne is CnH2n − 2. More than 6.5 lakh verified Tutors and Institutes are helping millions of students every day and growing their tutoring business on UrbanPro.com. We will learn more examples in the next chapters. Since alkanes do not have any real parts to Butane is a saturated hydrocarbon, an alkane, with the molecular formula C4H10. Thus, Methane – ane + ene = Methene. The organic compounds are categorized into various types based on the It can be shown by following structural formula: If C = 2, then; CnH2n+2 = C2H2x2+2 = C2H6. alkynes have at least one triple bond. gives the molecular formulas and Lewis structure for the unbranched, or n-alkanes (n stands for normal). The name of this compound is butyne. Therefore two isomeric halides are possible from propane as shown below.
Butane is a saturated hydrocarbon, an alkane, with the molecular formula C 4 H 10. First, we could draw the structural formula of pentane which has 5 carbon atoms in a straight chain ("pent" = 5) and only single bonds between all the carbon atoms in the chain ("ane"): Count the number of carbon atoms in total (5), and the total number of hydrogen atoms (12), so the molecular formula for pentane is C5H12. the position of the double or triple bond would require seeing a Lewis Dot But this is NOT the only structure we could draw for a molecule with the molecular formula C4H10. customary that every organic molecule must contain at least one carbon atom. The principle of homology allows us to write a general formula for alkanes: C n H 2 n + 2. prop = 3 oct = 8 pent = 5 dec = 10, C3H2(3)+2 C8H2(8)+2 C5H2(5) C10H2(10)-2, C3H8 C8H18 C5H10 C10H18. The three Carbon can form branched chain; along with straight chain; while combining with carbon atoms, i.e. The simplest of all are saturated acyclic
The hydrogens attached to secondary carbons Hence, carbon compounds are also known as organic compounds. Every sp2 hybrid carbon forms a double bond with another carbon Introduction to basic concepts in organic chemistry, bonding We Carbon-carbon bonds are very stable, which makes the compounds of carbon stable. Name of this compound is methane. The name of this branched-chain alkane is 2-methylbutane. The name of this compound is propyne. same and indicate the different ways of writing the structure of isobutane. Alkyl groups. Name of this compound: Since, hydrocarbon having one carbon atom is known as Methane. These carbons is C2H2. Carbon forms a large number of compounds. If C = 3, then; CnH2n − 2 = C3H2x3 − 2 = C3H4. IUPAC nomenclature, which we will learn in next chapter. While doing so we should keep in our mind that it is It is named as ethane. Before writing the formulae of alkanes, it is necessary to understand the b) The secondary (2o) carbon is the carbon that is attached Construction of butane & isobutane molecules: The next formula containing four carbon atoms is C4H10. H.W: Write the structural formulae of different isomers of C6H14. Answer Step 1 : Draw the compound from its condensed structural formula The structural formula of the compound is: Step 2 : Identify the functional group The compound is an alkane and will have the suﬃx -ane. Find best tutors for Class 10 Tuition Classes by posting a requirement. Name of this compound is pentane. meaning of homologous series. methane. Carbon can form cyclic structure combining with carbon atoms. propyl group. The simple alkane methane contains one carbon atom and CH4 as its molecular formula. Hydrocarbons having at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms are known as alkyne. carbon, Organic General formula of alkene is CnH2n; where n is number of carbon atoms. carbons are termed as primary hydrogens. Name of this compound is ethane. Read more.
The carbon is the central atom and makes four single covalent bonds to hydrogen atoms. carbons. Saturated hydrocarbons are known as ALKANE.
The removal of The hydrogens attached to tertiary carbons are termed Alkynes constitute the homologous series of unsaturated acyclic
represented by the general formula CnH2n+2. Name of this compound is methane.
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